Genetic and environmental influences on drug use and abuse/dependence in male and female twins
van den Bree, M. B. M., Johnson, E., Neale, M. C., & Pickens, R. W. (1998). Genetic and environmental influences on drug use and abuse/dependence in male and female twins. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 52(3), 231-241. DOI: 10.1016/S0376-8716(98)00101-X
Twins were recruited through alcohol and drug treatment programs. With structural equation modeling, genetic and environmental estimates were obtained for use and DSM-III abuse/dependence of sedatives, opioids, cocaine, stimulants, and cannabis as well as any illicit drug. Analyses were conducted separately for males and females. Models included thresholds based on population prevalence of use or abuse/dependence and ever having been in treatment. Genetic influences were found for most measures. They were generally stronger for males than females and for clinical diagnoses of abuse/dependence compared to use. Common environmental influences played a greater role in use than abuse/dependence.