Gender, caste, and economic inequalities and marital violence in rural South India
We conducted a survey to examine the relationships among gender, caste, and economic inequalities and marital violence among women in rural South India. Thirty-four percent of 397 women reported having ever been hit, forced to have sex by their husbands, or both. Women belonging to lower caste, poorer households, having greater economic autonomy, and whose husbands consumed alcohol were more likely to report violence. In multivariate analyses, indicators of women's economic autonomy and husbands' alcohol consumption were significantly associated with violence, independent of caste and economic status, which highlights the need to address the links between gender inequalities and marital violence.