Galactose consumption, metabolism, and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations in women of late reproductive age
Cooper, G. S., Hulka, B. S., Baird, D. D., Savitz, D. A., Hughes, C., Weinberg, C. R., ... Shields, J. M. (1994). Galactose consumption, metabolism, and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations in women of late reproductive age. Fertility and Sterility, 62(6), 1168-1175.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that high galactose consumption and low activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (transferase) is associated with early ovarian senescence among nongalactosemic women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Data collection consisted of a self-administered questionnaire with sections on diet (food frequency data to measure galactose consumption), reproductive, and medical histories. One blood sample was collected to measure FSH and transferase activity; FSH was used as a measure of ovarian senescence. Among women who were having menstrual periods at least every 8 weeks, the blood sample was drawn in the early follicular phase (days 2 to 4) of a menstrual cycle. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred ninety-five women volunteers ages 38 to 49 years who had not had a hysterectomy or oophorectomy were recruited through posters and advertisements. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Serum FSH concentrations. RESULTS: Controlling for age, smoking, and body mass, transferase activity and FSH were unrelated. However, FSH levels were 29% higher (95% confidence intervals, 9% to 52%) among women who reported consuming > or = 6 g galactose/d. CONCLUSION: These data do not support the hypothesis that low transferase activity represents a genetic predisposition for early ovarian senescence, as measured by FSH levels in women ages 38 to 49 years. However, the hypothesized positive association between galactose consumption and FSH was supported