Formulation of a dry powder influenza vaccine for nasal delivery
Garmise, R. J., Mar, K., Crowder, T. M., Hwang, C. R., Ferriter, M., Huang, J., ... Hickey, A. (2006). Formulation of a dry powder influenza vaccine for nasal delivery. AAPS PharmSciTech, 7(1), Article No. 19.
The purpose of this research was to prepare a dry powder vaccine formulation containing whole inactivated influenza virus (WIIV) and a mucoadhesive compound suitable for nasal delivery. Powders containing WIIV and either lactose or trehalose were produced by lyophilization. A micro-ball mill was used to reduce the lyophilized cake to sizes suitable for nasal delivery. Chitosan flakes were reduced in size using a cryo-milling technique. Milled powders were sieved between 45 and 125 mu m aggregate sizes and characterized for particle size and distribution, morphology, and flow properties. Powders were blended in the micro-ball mill without the ball. Lyophilization followed by milling produced irregularly shaped, polydisperse particles with a median primary particle diameter of similar to 21 mu m and a yield of similar to 37% of particles in the 45 to 125 mu m particle size range. Flow properties of lactose and trehalose powders after lyophilization followed by milling and sieving were similar. Cryo-milling produced a small yield of particles in the desired size range (<10%). Lyophilization followed by milling and sieving produced particles suitable for nasal delivery with different physicochemical properties as a function of processing conditions and components of the formulation. Further optimization of particle size and morphology is required for these powders to be suitable for clinical evaluation