• Article

Formulation of a dry powder influenza vaccine for nasal delivery

The purpose of this research was to prepare a dry powder vaccine formulation containing whole inactivated influenza virus (WIIV) and a mucoadhesive compound suitable for nasal delivery. Powders containing WIIV and either lactose or trehalose were produced by lyophilization. A micro-ball mill was used to reduce the lyophilized cake to sizes suitable for nasal delivery. Chitosan flakes were reduced in size using a cryo-milling technique. Milled powders were sieved between 45 and 125 mu m aggregate sizes and characterized for particle size and distribution, morphology, and flow properties. Powders were blended in the micro-ball mill without the ball. Lyophilization followed by milling produced irregularly shaped, polydisperse particles with a median primary particle diameter of similar to 21 mu m and a yield of similar to 37% of particles in the 45 to 125 mu m particle size range. Flow properties of lactose and trehalose powders after lyophilization followed by milling and sieving were similar. Cryo-milling produced a small yield of particles in the desired size range (<10%). Lyophilization followed by milling and sieving produced particles suitable for nasal delivery with different physicochemical properties as a function of processing conditions and components of the formulation. Further optimization of particle size and morphology is required for these powders to be suitable for clinical evaluation


Garmise, RJ., Mar, K., Crowder, TM., Hwang, CR., Ferriter, M., Huang, J., ... Hickey, A. (2006). Formulation of a dry powder influenza vaccine for nasal delivery. AAPS PharmSciTech, 7(1), Article No. 19.