Follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations in relation to active and passive smoking
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between various forms of tobacco exposure and ovarian status, as measured by FSH concentrations, in women 38-49 years old. METHODS: Two hundred ninety women between 38-49 years old, who had not had hysterectomy or oophorectomy, completed a self-administered questionnaire that included information on tobacco exposure and had serum FSH levels measured on days 2-4 of the menstrual cycle. Linear regression was used to assess the relation between FSH and tobacco exposure. RESULTS: Controlling for age and other factors, FSH concentrations were 66% higher among current smokers (geometric mean FSH 14.0 mIU/mL) and 39% higher among nonsmokers with passive smoke exposure (11.7 mIU/mL), compared to nonsmoking women without passive smoke exposure (8.4 mIU/mL). The estimated increase in FSH for each year of age was greater for current smokers than for nonsmokers (16 versus 6%, respectively). Ex-smokers did not have higher FSH concentrations, and there was no association between prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke and FSH. CONCLUSION: Both active and passive smoking are associated with elevated FSH concentrations in women 38-49 years old. The effect, limited to women with current exposure, is consistent with a shorter duration of the menopausal transition period
Cooper, G. S., Baird, D. D., Hulka, B. S., Weinberg, C. R., Savitz, D. A., & Hughes, C. (1995). Follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations in relation to active and passive smoking. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 85(3), 407-411.