Federal Title IV-E Adoption Assistance is an essential resource for states moving children from foster care to adoption. Secondary analyses indicate that federal funds support nearly half the costs of all adoption subsidies. Due to variations in eligibility, federal matching rates, and states' use of the program, the proportion of total subsidy costs supported by Title IV-E funds ranges from 25 to 72 percent among states. Multivariate analyses of recent adoptions demonstrate the importance of Title IV-E utilization for adopted children and their families, in that Title IV-E-eligible children are more likely to receive subsidies and to receive larger subsidies, compared to children who are not Title IV-E eligible. Variations in Title IV-E utilization have potential impacts on children, adoptive families and state child welfare agencies.