Factors associated with chronic renal failure in HIV-infected ambulatory patients
OBJECTIVE: Renal disease is an increasingly common manifestation among HIV-positive persons, particularly during late stages of HIV disease. We performed a cohort-based, nested case-control study to examine the role of several factors in developing HIV-related chronic renal disease, including HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count. DESIGN: Incident cases of chronic renal disease were identified from a cohort of 6361 prospectively followed HIV-1 positive persons. Controls were selected using incidence density sampling and matched 4:1 on age, race/ethnicity, and gender. METHODS: Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: One hundred and eight cases of chronic renal disease were identified; 80 (74.1%) were eligible for the current analysis. Nadir CD4+ cell count < 200 x 10(6) cells/l (OR = 4.3; 95% CI, 2.1-8.7), highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use for 56 days or more (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-1.0), and hypertension [treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: OR = 4.6; 95% CI, 1.8-11.6; treated with non-ACE inhibitors: OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.0-6.2; not treated: OR = 4.2; 95% CI, 0.8-21.6] were associated with disease. HAART use for 56 days or more modified the associations for nadir CD4+ cell count and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that advanced HIV-disease, as indicated by low CD4+ cell count, is associated with subsequently developing chronic renal disease and treatment with HAART may reduce the risk of developing chronic renal disease
Krawczyk, CS., Holmberg, S., Moorman, AC., Gardner, LI., & McGwin, G. (2004). Factors associated with chronic renal failure in HIV-infected ambulatory patients. AIDS, 18(16), 2171-2178.