Experimental considerations for the study of contaminant dispersion near the body
Rodes, C., Kamens, R. M., & Wiener, R. W. (1995). Experimental considerations for the study of contaminant dispersion near the body. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 56(6), 535-545.
Experimental considerations are discussed for conducting controlled studies of the dispersion of contaminants released near a mannequin. A 183 cm x 183 cm cross section wind tunnel was modified to study the low velocity range of 10 to 100 cm/sec (20 to 200 ft/min). Installation of a removable biplanar slat grid produced turbulent intensities up to 15%. The results of validation testing for selected experimental components are reported, including (1) a minimum, unambiguous velocity measurement capability of 2.0 cm/sec (4.0 ft/min); (2) a minimum required integration interval for velocity and contaminant measurements of at least 3 min; (3) a determination that smoke streamline plume settling may be a problem at velocities < or = approximately 15 cm/sec (approximately 30 ft/min); (4) a determination that a 14% tunnel blockage by the mannequin was not of consequence for frontal measurements; and (5) a finding that the biplanar grid produced turbulence spectra representative of low velocity indoor settings. A deceleration zone was noted that extended 50 cm upstream from the mannequin, with freestream velocities reduced 50 to 60%, 2.5 cm from the chest. A contaminant tracer released as a point source 60 cm upstream typically dispersed laterally only 10 to 15 cm and diluted by a factor of 10(4) before reaching the chest