Evaluation of the metabolism and hepatotoxicity of styrene in F344 rats, B6C3F1 mice, and CD-1 mice following single and repeated inhalation exposures
Sumner, S., Cattley, R. C., Asgharian, B., Janszen, D. B., & Fennell, T. (1997). Evaluation of the metabolism and hepatotoxicity of styrene in F344 rats, B6C3F1 mice, and CD-1 mice following single and repeated inhalation exposures. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 106(1), 47-65.
Styrene is used for the manufacture of plastics and polymers. The metabolism and hepatotoxicity (mice only) of styrene was compared in male B6C3F1 mice, CD-1 mice, and F344 rats to evaluate biochemical mechanisms of toxicity. Rats and mice were exposed to 250 ppm styrene for 6 h/day for 1 to 5 days, and liver (mice only) and blood were collected following each day of exposure. Mortality and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity were observed in mice but not in rats. Hepatotoxicity in B6C3F1 mice was characterized by severe centrilobular congestion after one exposure followed by acute centrilobular necrosis. Hepatotoxicity was delayed by 1 day in CD-1 mice, and the increase in ALT and degree of necrosis was less than observed for B6C3F1 mice. Following exposure to unlabeled styrene for 0, 2, or 4 days, rats and mice were exposed to [7-14C]-styrene (60 microCi/mmol) for 6 h. Urine, feces, and expired air were collected for up to 48 h. Most styrene-derived radioactivity was excreted in urine. The time-course of urinary excretion indicates that rats and CD-1 mice eliminated radioactivity at a faster rate than B6C3F1 mice following a single 250 ppm exposure, consistent with a greater extent of liver injury for B6C3F1 mice. The elimination rate following 3 or 5 days of exposure was similar for rats and both mouse strains. Following three exposures, the total radioactivity eliminated in excreta was elevated over that measured for one exposure for both mouse strains. An increased excretion of metabolites on multiple exposure is consistent with the absence of ongoing acute necrosis following 4 to 5 daily exposures. These data indicate that an induction in styrene metabolism occurs after multiple exposures, resulting in an increased uptake and/or clearance for styrene