The evaluation of the developmental toxicity of hydrochlorothiazide in mice and rats
George, J., Price, C., Tyl, R., Marr, M., & Kimmel, C. A. (1995). The evaluation of the developmental toxicity of hydrochlorothiazide in mice and rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 26(2), 174-180.
Timed-pregnant CD-1 outbred albino Swiss mice and CD Sprague-Dawley rats were administered hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, USP) in corn oil by gavage during major organogenesis, Gestational Days (GD) 6 through 15. The doses administered were 0, 300, 1000, or 3000 mg/kg/day for mice and 0, 100, 300, or 1,000 mg/kg/day for rats. Maternal clinical status was monitored daily during treatment. At termination (GD 17, mice; GD 20, rats), confirmed pregnant females (20-27 per group, mice; 36-39 per group, rats) were evaluated for clinical status and gestational outcome; each live fetus was examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations. In mice, no maternal mortality was observed. However, clinical signs including dehydration, piloerection, lethargy, and single-day weight loss appeared to be dose-related. HCTZ had no effect on maternal weight gain or water consumption, gravid uterine weight, relative maternal liver weight, or relative maternal kidney weight. There was no definitive evidence of embryotoxicity or fetal toxicity for mice on GD 17. Thus, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for both maternal and developmental toxicity was 3000 mg/kg/day. In rats, HCTZ had no effect on maternal survival, clinical signs, or water consumption. Clinical signs were not dose-related. Maternal weight gain during treatment was depressed at 1000 mg/kg/day. Gravid uterine weight and relative maternal liver weight were unaffected. Relative maternal kidney weight was slightly (7-8%) increased at all dose levels, but there was no evidence of a dose response. Thus, the maternal NOAEL for rats was 300 mg/kg/day, based on decreased maternal weight gain during treatment at 1000 mg/kg/day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)