Estimating the full cost of workplace injuries
While many studies estimate medical costs and lost wages from workplace injuries, few have estimated pain and suffering costs. This study develops a wage-risk model for railroad workers and estimates the total cost of on-the-job injuries. On average, the total cost of an on-the-job injury to a railroad worker in 1980 was between $19,500 and $22,500. These estimates are substantially higher than the sum of medical costs plus lost wages
French, M. (1990). Estimating the full cost of workplace injuries. American Journal of Public Health, 80(9), 1118-1119.