Brown, L. M., Check, D. P., & Devesa, S. S. (2017). Esophageal cancer. In S. R. Quah, & W. C. Cockerham (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Public Health (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 594-602). Academic Press. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803678-5.00141-7
Esophageal cancer is a malignant tumor that develops in the inner layers of the mucosa (lining) of the esophagus. It is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and is known for its marked variation by geographic region, ethnicity, and gender. The two main types of esophageal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, share a poor prognosis but have distinct histopathologic and epidemiologic profiles. This article presents an overview of esophageal cancer, including global incidence, mortality and survival patterns; known and suspected risk factors and protective factors, signs and symptoms of disease, common procedures for diagnosis and treatment, and public health significance.