Efficacy, tolerability, and parent reported outcomes for cefdinir vs. high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate oral suspension for acute otitis media in young children
Block, S. L., Schmier, J. K., Notario, G. F., Akinlade, B. K., Busman, T. A., Mackinnon, G. E., ... Nilius, A. M. (2006). Efficacy, tolerability, and parent reported outcomes for cefdinir vs. high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate oral suspension for acute otitis media in young children. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 22(9), 1839-1847.
OBJECTIVES: To compare efficacy, tolerability, and parental satisfaction of cefdinir and high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate oral suspensions given to young children with non-refractory acute otitis media (AOM) based on clinical endpoints and outcomes measures. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an investigator-blinded, multicenter study in which 318 children 6 months through 6 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of AOM were randomized to receive 10 days of either cefdinir (14 mg/kg divided BID) or high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate (90/6.4 mg/kg divided BID). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Investigators evaluated clinical response at an end-of-therapy (EOT) office visit conducted on day 12-15. Outcomes of satisfaction, tolerability, and adherence were also assessed at that visit using an Otitis Parent Questionnaire. RESULTS: The treatment groups were similar at baseline with respect to patient demographics. At the EOT visit, for cefdinir and amoxicillin/clavulanate, respectively, intent-to-treat (ITT) clinical cure rates were 82% (129/158) and 85% (134/158) (p = 0.547; 95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to 5.4) and per-protocol cure rates were 82% (123/150) and 90% (129/143) (p = 0.045; 95% CI -16.4 to 0.0). This difference was driven primarily by reduced cefdinir response in patients with recurrent AOM (p = 0.010) and those younger than 24 months (p = 0.039). Comparing cefdinir with amoxicillin/clavulanate, parents more often reported significantly better ease of use (89% vs. 57%; p < 0.0001), better taste (85% vs. 39%; p < 0.0001), and better adherence (at least 95% of doses) (82% vs. 61%; p < 0.0001). Diarrhea/loose stools were more common in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group than in the cefdinir group (28% vs. 18%, respectively; p = 0.0341). One patient in the cefdinir group and eight patients in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group withdrew from the study prematurely due to at least one adverse event (p = 0.0364). Study limitations included assessment of clinical recurrence by telephone call rather than office visit, exclusion of children with refractory AOM, and no assessment of middle ear microbiology. CONCLUSIONS: Among young children with non-refractory AOM, cefdinir was as efficacious as high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate in the ITT group, but somewhat less effective in per-protocol analysis. From the parental perspective, cefdinir was easier to administer, had a better taste, caused less diarrhea, and resulted in higher treatment adherence than high-dose amoxicillin clavulanate