The effectiveness of incentives in enhancing treatment attendance and drug abstinence in methadone-maintained pregnant women
This study examined the effectiveness of short-term contingency management for eliminating cocaine use and increasing full day treatment attendance with pregnant methadone-maintained women randomly assigned to either an escalating voucher incentive schedule (n=44) or non-incentive (n=36) conditions. Full day treatment attendance and urine toxicology for cocaine and heroin were assessed and consequated for 14 days. The escalating voucher incentive schedule significantly increased full day treatment attendance and drug abstinence compared to the non-incentive schedule. These results suggest that reinforcing the co-occurrence of two required behaviors (treatment attendance and abstinence from illicit drug use) is effective, and may be an important adjunct to methadone pharmacotherapy for treating pregnant drug dependent women.