BACKGROUND: Second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic drugs are widely used to treat psychosis, aggression, and agitation in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but their benefits are uncertain and concerns about safety have emerged. We assessed the effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic drugs in outpatients with Alzheimer's disease.
METHODS: In this 42-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 421 outpatients with Alzheimer's disease and psychosis, aggression, or agitation were randomly assigned to receive olanzapine (mean dose, 5.5 mg per day), quetiapine (mean dose, 56.5 mg per day), risperidone (mean dose, 1.0 mg per day), or placebo. Doses were adjusted as needed, and patients were followed for up to 36 weeks. The main outcomes were the time from initial treatment to the discontinuation of treatment for any reason and the number of patients with at least minimal improvement on the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) scale at 12 weeks.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences among treatments with regard to the time to the discontinuation of treatment for any reason: olanzapine (median, 8.1 weeks), quetiapine (median, 5.3 weeks), risperidone (median, 7.4 weeks), and placebo (median, 8.0 weeks) (P=0.52). The median time to the discontinuation of treatment due to a lack of efficacy favored olanzapine (22.1 weeks) and risperidone (26.7 weeks) as compared with quetiapine (9.1 weeks) and placebo (9.0 weeks) (P=0.002). The time to the discontinuation of treatment due to adverse events or intolerability favored placebo. Overall, 24% of patients who received olanzapine, 16% of patients who received quetiapine, 18% of patients who received risperidone, and 5% of patients who received placebo discontinued their assigned treatment owing to intolerability (P=0.009). No significant differences were noted among the groups with regard to improvement on the CGIC scale. Improvement was observed in 32% of patients assigned to olanzapine, 26% of patients assigned to quetiapine, 29% of patients assigned to risperidone, and 21% of patients assigned to placebo (P=0.22).
CONCLUSIONS: Adverse effects offset advantages in the efficacy of atypical antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of psychosis, aggression, or agitation in patients with Alzheimer's disease. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00015548 [ClinicalTrials.gov].).