PURPOSE: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common congenital infection in the United States; however, limited data exist regarding the economic burden of cCMV disease (cCMVd) among newborns and infants. The purpose of this study was to compare health care resource utilization and costs between infants with cCMVd at birth and during the first year of life versus matched infants without diagnosed cCMVd.
METHODS: Retrospective analyses of health insurance claims data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Multi-State Medicaid databases (January 1, 2011-December 31, 2016) were conducted. Infants with cCMV diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 771.1 or 078.5; International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification code P35.1 or B25) were included. Two mutually exclusive periods were examined: initial hospital stay at birth ("birth" analysis) and subsequent 12 months ("postbirth" analysis). Infants with cCMVd in both periods were matched 1:1 to infants without cCMVd based on demographic and clinical characteristics. All-cause costs for cCMVd in infants versus matched control infants were reported in 2016 US dollars. Multivariable regression analyses controlled for additional confounding factors.
FINDINGS: In the birth analysis, 397 of 404 newborns with cCMVd (167 vaginal deliveries, 230 cesarean deliveries) were matched to control infants; newborns with cCMVd had an additional mean (95% CI) of 9.1 (5.8-12.3) and 9.0 (4.6-13.5) inpatient days and $24,274 (10,082-38,466) and $31,770 (9911-53,630) more unadjusted inpatient costs versus control infants for vaginal and cesarean deliveries, respectively. In the postbirth analysis, 678 of 679 infants with cCMVd were matched with control infants; infants with cCMVd had an additional $58,806 (95% CI, 41,247-76,365) in unadjusted costs versus control infants, with inpatient visits accounting for 85% of the difference. Newborns with cCMVd accrued costs at birth averaging 1.5 to 2.1 times greater than control infants for cesarean and vaginal deliveries. During the first year of life, infants with cCMVd had costs averaging 7 times greater than control infants.
IMPLICATIONS: cCMVd is associated with substantial economic burden from birth and during the first year of life. Our findings support the notion that developing effective prevention of cCMVd and increasing awareness of the disease among women should be a public health priority, given the economic burden of cCMVd.