Aims: To assess whether associations between alcohol availability and consumption, drinking to drunkenness, and negative drinking consequences vary among individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. Methods: 10,482 current drinkers in 2005-2015 National Alcohol Surveys (50.0% female; 74.4% White, 8.7% Black, 11.1% Hispanic). Elevated depressive symptoms was defined as having symptoms suggestive of major depressive disorder (above CES-D8/PHQ-2 cut-offs) versus no/sub-threshold symptoms (below cut-offs). Inverse probability of treatment weighted and covariate adjusted Poisson models with robust standard errors estimated associations of ZIP-code bar density and off-premise outlet density (locations/1,000 residents), elevated depressive symptoms, and their interaction with past-year volume consumed, monthly drinking to drunkenness, and negative drinking consequences. Models were then stratified by sex and race and ethnicity. Results: Overall, 13.7% of respondents had elevated depressive symptoms. Regarding density, the only statisti-cally significant association observed was between off-premise density and volume consumed (rate ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.0, 1.7). Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with higher volume consumed, prevalence of drinking to drunkenness, and prevalence of negative consequences when controlling for off-premise density or bar density. However, there was no evidence of interaction between symptoms and density in the full sample nor among subgroups. Conclusion: This study suggests that, while elevated depressive symptoms do not alter associations between alcohol availability and alcohol use and problems, they remain associated with these outcomes among past-year drinkers in a U.S. general population sample even when accounting for differential availability. Addressing depressive symptoms should be considered along with other policies to reduce population-level drinking and alcohol problems.
Does the relationship between alcohol retail environment and alcohol outcomes vary by depressive symptoms? Findings from a US Survey of Black, Hispanic and White drinkers
Phillips, A. Z., Mulia, N., Subbaraman, M. S., Kershaw, K. N., Kerr, W. C., & Karriker-Jaffe, K. J. (2023). Does the relationship between alcohol retail environment and alcohol outcomes vary by depressive symptoms? Findings from a US Survey of Black, Hispanic and White drinkers. Addictive Behaviors, 136, . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107463