Aims: To assess whether associations between alcohol availability and consumption, drinking to drunkenness, and negative drinking consequences vary among individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. Methods: 10,482 current drinkers in 2005-2015 National Alcohol Surveys (50.0% female; 74.4% White, 8.7% Black, 11.1% Hispanic). Elevated depressive symptoms was defined as having symptoms suggestive of major depressive disorder (above CES-D8/PHQ-2 cut-offs) versus no/sub-threshold symptoms (below cut-offs). Inverse probability of treatment weighted and covariate adjusted Poisson models with robust standard errors estimated associations of ZIP-code bar density and off-premise outlet density (locations/1,000 residents), elevated depressive symptoms, and their interaction with past-year volume consumed, monthly drinking to drunkenness, and negative drinking consequences. Models were then stratified by sex and race and ethnicity. Results: Overall, 13.7% of respondents had elevated depressive symptoms. Regarding density, the only statisti-cally significant association observed was between off-premise density and volume consumed (rate ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.0, 1.7). Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with higher volume consumed, prevalence of drinking to drunkenness, and prevalence of negative consequences when controlling for off-premise density or bar density. However, there was no evidence of interaction between symptoms and density in the full sample nor among subgroups. Conclusion: This study suggests that, while elevated depressive symptoms do not alter associations between alcohol availability and alcohol use and problems, they remain associated with these outcomes among past-year drinkers in a U.S. general population sample even when accounting for differential availability. Addressing depressive symptoms should be considered along with other policies to reduce population-level drinking and alcohol problems.
Does the relationship between alcohol retail environment and alcohol outcomes vary by depressive symptoms? Findings from a US Survey of Black, Hispanic and White drinkers
Phillips, A. Z., Mulia, N., Subbaraman, M. S., Kershaw, K. N., Kerr, W. C., & Karriker-Jaffe, K. J. (2023). Does the relationship between alcohol retail environment and alcohol outcomes vary by depressive symptoms? Findings from a US Survey of Black, Hispanic and White drinkers. Addictive Behaviors, 136, . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107463
To contact an RTI author, request a report, or for additional information about publications by our experts, send us your request.
Rate of onset of dopamine transporter inhibitors assessed with intracranial self-stimulation and in vivo dopamine photometry in rats
Personal exposure to PM2.5 in different microenvironments and activities for retired adults in two megacities, China
Estimating global artisanal fishing fleet responses in an era of rapid climate and economic change