Distributions, associations, and partial aggregate exposure of pesticides and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES)
The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES) provides exposure, environmental, and biologic data relating to multipathway exposures of children for four primary pesticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, and atrazine), 14 secondary pesticides, and 13 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring was performed on a probability-based sample of 102 children aged 3-12 in Minneapolis/St. Paul and in a nearby rural area (Goodhue and Rice counties). This paper provides estimated distributions of this population's exposures and exposure-related measurements and examines associations among the various measures via rank (Spearman) correlations. In addition, it provides some aggregate and cumulative exposure estimates for pesticides, and compares the relative intakes from inhalation and dietary ingestion. Intakes for the four primary pesticides appeared to come principally from the ingestion rather than the inhalation route; this was clearly true for chlorpyrifos but was less certain for the other three primary pesticides because of their higher degree of nondetects. Solid food rather than beverages was clearly the main contributor to the ingestion intake. Despite the dominance of the ingestion route, the urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos exhibited a stronger association with the air measurements than with the dietary measures. Personal-air samples exhibited strong rank correlations with indoor air samples for chlorpyrifos, malathion, and diazinon (0.81, 0.51, and 0.62, respectively), while personal-air atrazine levels correlated well with outdoor levels (0.69); personal-air diazinon levels also correlated well with outdoor levels (0.67). For the PAHs, many significant associations were evident among the various air samples and for the air samples with the dust samples, especially for those compounds with consistently high percent measurable values (particularly fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and pyrene)
Clayton, C., Pellizzari, E., Whitmore, R., Quackenboss, J. J., Adgate, J., & Sefton, K. (2003). Distributions, associations, and partial aggregate exposure of pesticides and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES). Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 13(2), 100-111.