The study's purpose was to identify differences in the relationship between tobacco control policies and smoking by poverty. We matched state smoke-free air law coverage (SFALs), tobacco control funding (TCF), and cigarette taxes with individual current smoking and demographics from supplements to the Current Population Survey (1985-2015). We regressed (logistic) smoking on policy variables, poverty (<138% of poverty line versus ≥138% of poverty line), interactions of policy and poverty, and covariates, presenting beta coefficients instead of odds ratios because it is difficult to interpret interactions using odds ratios (they are ratios of odds ratios). We coded SFALs as (1) proportion of state covered by 100% workplace, restaurant and bar laws (SFAL-All) or (2) proportion of state covered by workplace laws (SFAL-WP) and proportion covered by restaurant or bar laws (SFAL-RB). In the SFAL-All model, SFAL-All (Beta coeff: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.06, -0.002), tax (Coeff: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.07, -0.05), and TCF (Coeff: -0.01, 95% CI: -0.01, -0.001) were associated with less smoking. In this model, the interaction of SFAL-All by poverty was significant (Coeff: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.13). In the SFAL-WP/RB model, SFAL-RB (Coeff: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.08, -0.02), tax (Coeff: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.06, -0.04), and TCF (Coeff: -0.01, 95% CI: -0.01, -0.00) were significant. In the same model, SFAL-WP (Coeff: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.15), SFAL-RB (Coeff: -0.14, 95% CI: -0.19, -0.09), and TCF (Coeff: 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.02) interacted with poverty. Tax by poverty was of borderline significance in this model (Coeff = 0.02, 95% CI: -0.00, 0.04, p = 0.050). Among adults, SFALs, TCF, and tax were associated with less current smoking, and SFALs and TCF had differential relationships with smoking by poverty.
Differential relationship between tobacco control policies and U.S. adult current smoking by poverty
Dutra, L. M., Farrelly, M. C., Nonnemaker, J., Bradfield, B., Gaber, J., Patel, M., & Hair, E. C. (2019). Differential relationship between tobacco control policies and U.S. adult current smoking by poverty. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(21), . https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214130