OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and extent of delivery room resuscitation and evaluate the association of delivery room resuscitation with neonatal outcomes in moderately preterm (MPT) infants.
STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational cohort study of MPT infants delivered at 290/7 to 336/7 weeks' gestational age (GA) enrolled in the Neonatal Research Network MPT registry. Infants were categorized into 5 groups based on the highest level of delivery room intervention: routine care, oxygen and/or continuous positive airway pressure, bag and mask ventilation, endotracheal intubation, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation including chest compressions and/or epinephrine use. The association of antepartum and intrapartum risk factors and discharge outcomes with the intensity of resuscitation was evaluated.
RESULTS: Of 7014 included infants, 1684 (24.0%) received routine care and no additional resuscitation, 2279 (32.5%) received oxygen or continuous positive airway pressure, 1831 (26.1%) received bag and mask ventilation, 1034 (14.7%) underwent endotracheal intubation, and 186 (2.7%) received cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Among the antepartum and intrapartum factors, increasing GA, any exposure to antenatal steroids and prolonged rupture of membranes decreased the likelihood of receipt of all levels of resuscitation. Infants who were small for GA (SGA) had increased risk of delivery room resuscitation. Among the neonatal outcomes, respiratory support at 28 days, days to full oral feeds and length of stay were significantly associated with the intensity of delivery room resuscitation. Higher intensity of resuscitation was associated with increased risk of mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of MPT infants receive some level of delivery room resuscitation. Increased intensity of delivery room interventions was associated with prolonged respiratory and nutritional support, increased mortality, and a longer length of stay.