Hypertension in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) is largely undiagnosed and uncontrolled, representing an untapped opportunity for public health improvement. Implementation of hypertension control strategies in low-resource settings depends in large part on cost considerations. However, evidence on the cost-effectiveness of hypertension interventions in LMICs is varied across geographical, clinical and evaluation contexts. We conducted a comprehensive search for published economic evaluations of hypertension treatment programmes in LMICs. The search identified 71 articles assessing a wide range of hypertension intervention designs and cost components, of which 42 studies across 15 countries reported estimates of cost-effectiveness. Although comparability of results was limited due to heterogeneity in the interventions assessed, populations studied, costs and study quality score, most interventions that reported cost per averted disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) were cost-effective, with costs per averted DALY not exceeding national income thresholds. Programme elements that may reduce cost-effectiveness included screening for hypertension at younger ages, addressing prehypertension, or treating patients at lower cardiovascular disease risk. Cost-effectiveness analysis could provide the evidence base to guide the initiation and development of hypertension programmes.
The cost-effectiveness of hypertension management in low-income and middle-income countries
Kostova, D., Spencer, G., Moran, A. E., Cobb, L. K., Husain, M. J., Datta, B. K., Matsushita, K., & Nugent, R. (2020). The cost-effectiveness of hypertension management in low-income and middle-income countries: A review. BMJ Global Health, 5(9), [e002213]. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002213