PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the classic analogy of "coronary artery calcium (CAC) as a mammogram of the heart", by evaluating the conceptual strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of a potential cardiovascular disease (CVD) screening strategy using CAC in apparently healthy adults.
RECENT FINDINGS: CAC is typically used for further CVD risk assessment. CAC is also currently being used as a screening test in specific subgroups of individuals, particularly in some Asian countries. Although this has yielded valuable insights on the determinants and pathophysiology of CVD, whether this approach results in improved clinical outcomes compared to other assessment and management approaches is currently unclear. Although CAC and mammograms share a number of characteristics, there are also important conceptual differences. The evidence supporting CAC, which is a robust CVD risk assessment tool, for CVD screening purposes is currently very limited, and further research is needed.