Characteristics of Pregnant Women With Hepatitis B Virus Infection in 5 US Public Health Jurisdictions, 2008-2012
Objective: We estimated the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), a serologic marker of active hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, among pregnant women, and estimated the proportion HBsAg-positive pregnant women who had received additional recommended testing. Methods: From 2008 through 2012, Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Programs (PHBPPs) in Florida, Michigan, Minnesota, New York City, and Texas prospectively collected data on demographic characteristics of HBsAg-positive pregnant women. We estimated the prevalence of HBsAg positivity among pregnant women by demographic characteristics using natality data. PHBPPs (excluding Texas) collected additional recommended testing (for hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg] and/or HBV deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA]) among HBsAg-positive pregnant women to measure levels of viremia. Results: During the study period, 15,205 HBsAg-positive women were case-managed. The median age of HBsAg-positive women was 29 years; prenatal HBsAg screening was at a median of 27 weeks pre-delivery. Of 15,205 HBsAg-positive women, 11,293 (74.3%) were foreign-born. In four PHBPPs with 14,098 pregnancies among 12,214 HBsAg-positive women, HBeAg and/or HBV DNA testing was documented for 2,794 (19.8%) pregnancies. The estimated prevalence of HBsAg positivity among pregnant women was 0.38% (17,023 of 4,468,773). HBsAg prevalence was highest among foreign-born women from most regions in Asia (2.0% to 8.7%; with the exception of South Asia, 0.4%) and Africa (3.4%). Conclusion: One-fifth of HBsAg-positive pregnant women had documentation for HBeAg and/or HBV DNA, and about one-third reported receiving care for HBV infection during a case-managed pregnancy. Greater emphasis is needed on prenatal evaluation for HBV liver disease care and treatment among pregnant women with HBV infection.