It is generally held with respect to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein-coupled receptors that binding of ligand stabilizes a conformation of receptor that activates adenylyl cyclase, It is not formally appreciated if, in the case of G-protein-coupled receptors with large extracellular domains (ECDs), ECDs directly participate in the activation process. The large ECD of the glycoprotein hormone receptors (GPHRs) is 350 amino acids in length, composed of seven leucine-rich repeat domains, and necessary and sufficient: for high affinity binding of the glycoprotein hormones. Peptide challenge experiments to identify regions in the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor (FSHR) ECD that could bind its cognate ligand identified only a single synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 221-252, which replicated a leucine-rich repeat domain of the FSHR ECD and which had intrinsic activity. This peptide inhibited human FSH binding to the human FSHR (hFSHR) and also inhibited human FSH-induced signal transduction in Y-1 cells expressing recombinant hFSHR. The hFSRR-(221-252) domain was not accessible to anti-peptide antibody probes, suggesting that this domain resides at an interface between the hFSHR ECD and transmembrane domains. CD spectroscopy of the peptide in dodecyl phosphocholine micelles showed an increase in the ordered structure of the peptide. CD and NMR spectroscopies of the peptide in trifluoroethanol confirmed that hFSRR-(221-252) has the propensity to form ordered secondary structure. Importantly and consistent with the foregoing results, dodecyl phosphocholine induced a significant increase in the ordered secondary structure of the purified hFSHR ECD as well. These data provide biophysical evidence of the influence of environment on GPHR ECD subdomain secondary structure and identify a specific activation domain that; can autologously modify GPHR activity.
Autologous biological response modification of the gonadotropin receptor
Mahale, SD., Cavanagh, J., Schmidt, A., MacColl, R., & Dias, JA. (2001). Autologous biological response modification of the gonadotropin receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 276(15), 12410-12419.