• Journal Article

Associations of criminal justice and substance use treatment involvement with HIV/HCV testing and the HIV treatment cascade among people who use drugs in Oakland, California

Citation

Lambdin, B. H., Kral, A. H., Comfort, M., Lopez, A. M., & Lorvick, J. (2017). Associations of criminal justice and substance use treatment involvement with HIV/HCV testing and the HIV treatment cascade among people who use drugs in Oakland, California. Addiction science & clinical practice, 12(1), 13. DOI: 10.1186/s13722-017-0078-9

Abstract

BACKGROUND: People who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs are at-risk for criminal justice involvement as well as HIV and HCV infection. Compared to criminal justice involvement, substance use treatment (SUT) can be cost-effective in reducing drug use and its associated health and social costs. We conducted a cross-sectional study of people who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs to examine the association between incarceration, community supervision and substance use treatment with HIV/HCV testing, components of the HIV treatment cascade, social and physical vulnerability and risk behavior.

METHODS: Targeted sampling methods were used to recruit people who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs (N = 2072) in Oakland, California from 2011 to 2013. Poisson regression models were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios between study exposures and outcomes.

RESULTS: The overall HIV prevalence was 3.3% (95% CI 2.6-4.1). People previously experiencing incarceration were 21% (p < 0.001) and 32% (p = 0.001), respectively, more likely to report HIV and HCV testing; and were not more likely to report receiving HIV care or initiating ART. People previously experiencing community supervision were 17% (p = 0.001) and 15% (p = 0.009), respectively, more likely to report HIV and HCV testing; and were not more likely to report receiving HIV care or initiating ART. People with a history of SUT were 15% (p < 0.001) and 23% (p < 0.001), respectively, more likely to report receiving HIV and HCV testing, 67% (p = 0.016) more likely to report HIV care, and 92% (p = 0.012) more likely to report HIV treatment initiation. People previously experiencing incarceration or community supervision were also more likely to report homelessness, trouble meeting basic needs and risk behavior.

CONCLUSIONS: People with a history of substance use treatment reported higher levels of HCV and HIV testing and greater access to HIV care and treatment among HIV-positive individuals. People with a history of incarceration or community supervision reported higher levels of HCV and HIV testing, but not greater access to HIV care or treatment among HIV-positive individuals., Substance use treatment programs that are integrated with other services for HIV and HCV will be critical to simultaneously address the underlying reasons drug-involved people engage in drug-related offenses and improve access to essential medical services.