The association of vitamin D use with hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients: A case–crossover study
Purpose: Elevated levels of phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) have been shown in observational studies to be associated with an increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes including mortality. Vitamin D sterols have been shown to increase the risk of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia in clinical trials. We sought to explore these risks in real-world clinical practice. Methods: We employed a case–crossover design, which eliminates confounding by non-time-varying patient characteristics by comparing, within each patient, vitamin D doses before the event with those at an earlier period. Using this method, we estimated the risk of hypercalcemic (Ca???11?g/dL) and hyperphosphatemic (P???8?g/dL) events for patients at different dose quartiles of vitamin D relative to patients not on a vitamin D sterol. Results: There was a dose-dependent association between vitamin D dose quartile and risk of hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia. In adjusted analyses, each increase in vitamin D quartile was associated with a multiple of hypercalcemia risk between 1.7 and 19 times compared with those not on vitamin D and a multiple of hyperphosphatemia risk between 1.8 and 4. Conclusion: Use of vitamin D sterols is associated with an increased risk of hypercalcemic and hyperphosphatemic events in real-world clinical practice. Other potential predictors of these events, such as phosphate binder use and dialysate Ca levels, were not examined in this analysis.