• Article

Adult and group influences on participation in youth empowerment programs

This study examined adult and group influences on youth participation in youth empowerment (YE) Statewide Youth Movement Against Tobacco Use programs. Adults provide individual guidance to youth groups and through existing tobacco control networks affect the social context in which YE programs are implemented. The authors tested hypotheses about the direct and indirect relationships between adults, groups, and youth collective participation. They used data from adults and youths to develop a measurement model of four higher order factors: adult involvement, group structure, group climate, and collective participation. They tested relationships between these factors in a structural equation model. Results showed that adult involvement did not have a meaningful direct effect on group factors or collective participation. Group factors mediated the relationship between adult involvement and collective participation. Further research is needed on how to measure adult involvement and its relationship to youth participation


Evans, W., Ulasevich, A., & Blahut, S. (2004). Adult and group influences on participation in youth empowerment programs. Health Education and Behavior, 31(5), 564-576.