Analysis of the profitability of adult vaccination in 13 private provider practices in the United States
Yarnoff, B., Khavjou, O., King, G., Bates, L., Zhou, F., Leidner, A. J., & Shen, A. K. (2019). Analysis of the profitability of adult vaccination in 13 private provider practices in the United States. Vaccine, 37(42), 6180-6185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.08.056, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.08.056
Vaccination coverage among adults remains low in the United States. Understanding the barriers to provision of adult vaccination is an important step to increasing vaccination coverage and improving public health. To better understand financial factors that may affect practice decisions about adult vaccination, this study sought to understand how costs compared with payments for adult vaccinations in a sample of U.S. physician practices. We recruited a convenience sample of 19 practices in nine states in 2017. We conducted a time-motion study to assess the time costs of vaccination activities and conducted a survey of practice managers to assess materials, management, and dose costs and payments for vaccination. We received complete cost and payment data from 13 of the 19 practices. We calculated annual income from vaccination services by comparing estimated costs with payments received for vaccine doses and vaccine administration. Median annual total income from vaccination services was $90,343 at family medicine practices (range: $3968-$249,628), $28,267 at internal medicine practices (-$32,659-$141,034) and $2886 at obstetrics and gynecology practices (-$73,451-$23,820). Adult vaccination was profitable at the median of our sample, but there is wide variation in profitability due to differences in costs and payment rates across practices. This study provides evidence on the financial viability of adult vaccination and supports actions for improving financial viability. These results can help inform practices' decisions whether to provide adult vaccines and contribute to keeping adults up-to-date with the recommended vaccination schedule.