Preferences for outcomes among adults with type 1 diabetes and caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes
Purpose: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is the accepted measure of effectiveness for type 1 diabetes therapies. We investigated preferences for measures of diabetes control in addition to HbA1c among adults with type 1 diabetes and caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes.
Methods: Using discrete-choice experiment methodology, surveys for adults with type 1 diabetes and caregivers presented choices between hypothetical treatments described by six attributes with varying levels: HbA1c, time in optimal glucose range, weekly number and severity of hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events, additional disease management time, and additional treatment cost. Choice data were analyzed using random-parameters logit.
Results: A total of 300 adults with type 1 diabetes and 400 caregivers completed the survey. Adults and caregivers placed the most importance on reducing hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events. For adults, avoiding 1-5 mild-to-moderate hypoglycemic events (glucose 54-69 mg/dL)/week was five times more important than being a half-point above target HbA1c. Avoiding 1-5 hyperglycemic events (glucose >180 mg/dL)/week was seven times more important than being a half-point above target HbA1c. Additional time in optimal glucose range was as important as a reduction greater than a half-point in HbA1c. Avoiding hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic events was more important than all other outcomes for caregivers of younger children. Caregivers of children >12 years placed relatively more weight on avoiding hypoglycemic events
Conclusion: Adults with type 1 diabetes and caregivers prioritize controlling hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events, including mild-to-moderate events. These preferences should be considered in drug development and regulatory decisions.