Developmental neurotoxicants in human milk
Comparison of levels and intakes in three European countries
Čechová, E., Scheringer, M., Seifertova, M., Mikeš, O., Kroupová, K., Kuta, J., Forns Guzman, J., Eggesbø, M., Quaak, I., de Cock, M., van de Bor, M., Patayova, H., Palkovičová Murínová, Ľ., & Kočan, A. (2017). Developmental neurotoxicants in human milk: Comparison of levels and intakes in three European countries. Science of the Total Environment, 637-645. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.046
Developmental neurotoxicants (DNTs), such as methylmercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), have gained increasing interest recently due to their possible relation to developmental disorders in children, which are increasing worldwide. We analyzed levels of 14 developmental neurotoxicants in human milk samples from Slovakia (n = 37), the Netherlands (n = 120) and Norway (n = 388). Positive identification for most target analytes was >95% in all samples. In all three countries MeHg was measured for the first time in mother milk. The highest MeHg levels were observed in Norway (39 pg g(-1), ww) with the highest fish consumption. Levels of indicator PCBs (iPCBs, sum of PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180), HCB and DDE + DDT were 2-4 times higher in Slovakia compared to the Netherlands or Norway. The levels of MeHg and organochlorine compounds were used for calculations of weekly or daily intakes (top-down approach) by means of pharmacokinetic modeling. The intakes ranged from 0.014 to 0.142 mu g kg(bw)(-1) week(-1) for MeHg and from 0.043 to 17.4 mu g kg(bw)(-1) day(-1) for organochlotine compounds in all three countries. Intakes of iPCBs exceeded a tolerable daily intake of 10 ng kgbw day(-1) in 16% of the Slovak participants. The top-down estimates were compared with bottom-up intakes based on national dietaty estimates and the results showed good consistency between both approaches, with the bottom-up intakes exceeding the top-down by a factor of maximum 3.8 for iPCBs in the Netherlands and 3.9 for HCB in Slovakia. This confirms that food consumption in all three countries represents the dominant pathway of exposure to these developmental neurotoxicants. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.