• Article

Youth, Voluntary Associations and Political Socialization

A model to investigate the effects of adolescent participation in voluntary associations on early adult political activity is estimated using longitudinal data from a national sample of adolescents who were followed up some two years after being initially surveyed as high school seniors. Results indicate that adolescent participation in voluntary groups increases selective forms of political expression, both directly and as its effects are mediated by adult participation in voluntary associations. The effects of voluntary organizational involvement on political participation were strongest for members of instrumental voluntary groups


Hanks, M. (1981). Youth, Voluntary Associations and Political Socialization. Social Forces, 60(1), 211-223.