Who's addressing the cardiovascular needs of uninsured women? The WISEWOMAN projects
Will, J., Massoudi, B., Mokdad, A., Ford, E., & Sadler, D. (2000). Who's addressing the cardiovascular needs of uninsured women? The WISEWOMAN projects. Canadian Journal of Cardiology.
RATIONALE: Uninsured women are an especially vulnerable population
with a host of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. WISEWOMAN
was developed to address the screening and intervention needs of this special population.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of enhanced interventions on CVD
METHODS: Women receiving free mammography and Pap smear screening
in three states were enrolled in a supplemental CVD risk factor screening
and intervention program involving either a minimum (MI) or enhanced intervention (EI). The EI featured a variety of skill-building exercises and activities to improve diet and increase physical activity. Blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, smoking, diet and physical activity were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. We used mixed model regression with adjustment for age, race, and education to compare intervention groups at baseline and 12 month follow-up.
RESULTS: Blood pressure, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol profiles
improved in both the MI and EI groups. Body weight was maintained and
smoking declined in both groups. Whereas the EI group was significantly
more likely to increase their daily intake of fruit and vegetables compared to
the MI group (P=0.001), no such differences were found for the other measurements.
CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle behaviors and physiologic measures were
improved in both groups. Further research is needed to help uninsured
women achieve maximum behavioral and physiologic change.