Validity testing of commercial urine cocaine metabolite assays: I. Assay detection times, individual excretion patterns, and kinetics after cocaine administration to humans
A validity study of eight commercial urine assays for detection of cocaine metabolite was performed on clinical specimens collected from human subjects who received single 20-mg intravenous doses of cocaine hydrochloride. The specimens were collected under controlled conditions and analyzed in random order under blind conditions. Benzoylecgonine concentration in each specimen also was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Mean times of detection of the last positive specimen (³300 ng/mL of benzoylecgonine equivalents) after cocaine administration varied among seven of the commercial tests from 16.9 to 52.9 h in the following ascending order: Toxi-Lab® & TDx® = EMIT® dau™ = EMIT® st™ & Abuscreen® & Coat-A-Count® = Double Antibody. In contrast, a commercial spot test (KDI Quik Test™) which was evaluated for detection of cocaine metabolite produced both false positives and false negatives for benzoylecgonine and was not considered to be a valid test for detection of cocaine metabolite. Half-lives of excretion of benzoylecgonine among four subjects varied from 5.9 to 7.9 h, and overall recovery of benzoylecgonine varied from 15.0 to 34.3% of the administered dose of cocaine.