TM Finder: A prediction program for transmembrane protein segments using a combination of hydrophobicity and nonpolar phase helicity scales
Deber, C. M., Wang, C., Liu, L. P., Prior, A. S., Agrawal, S., Muskat, B. L., & Cuticchia, A. (2001). TM Finder: A prediction program for transmembrane protein segments using a combination of hydrophobicity and nonpolar phase helicity scales. Protein Science, 10(1), 212-219.
Based on the principle of dual prediction by segment hydrophobicity and nonpolar phase helicity, in concert with imposed threshold values of these two parameters, we developed the automated prediction program TM Finder that can successfully locate most transmembrane (TM) segments in proteins. The program uses the results of experiments on a series of host-guest TM segment mimic peptides of prototypic sequence KK AAAXAAAAAXAAWAAXAAAKKKK-amide (where X = each of the 20 commonly occurring amino acids) through which an HPLC-derived hydropathy scale, a hydrophobicity threshold for spontaneous membrane insertion, and a nonpolar phase helical propensity scale were determined. Using these scales, the optimized prediction algorithm of TM Finder defines TM segments by first searching for competent core segments using the combination of hydrophobicity and helicity scales, and then performs a gap-joining operation, which minimizes prediction bias caused by local hydrophilic residues and/or the choice of window size. In addition, the hydrophobicity threshold requirement enables TM Finder to distinguish reliably between membrane proteins and globular proteins, thereby adding an important dimension to the program. A full web version of the TM Finder program can be accessed at http:Nwww.bioinformaticscanada.org/TM/