Organophosphates (OPs) induce acute and chronic neurotoxicity, primarily by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as well as by necrosis, and apoptosis. Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), an exogenous bioscavenger of OPs, can be used as a treatment for OP exposure. It is prerequisite to develop in vitro brain models that can study BuChE post-treatment for acute OP exposure. In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) brain-on-chip platform with human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons and astrocytes to simulate human brain behavior. The platform consists of two compartments: 1) a hydrogel embedded with human iPSC-derived GABAergic neurons and astrocytes and 2) a perfusion channel with dynamic medium flow. The brain tissue constructs were exposed to Malathion (MT) at various concentrations and then treated with BuChE after 20 minutes of MT exposure. Results show that the iPSC-derived neurons and astrocytes directly interacted and formed synapses in the 3D matrix, and that treatment with BuChE improved viability after MT exposure up to a concentration of 10-3 M. We conclude that the 3D brain-on-chip platform with human iPSC-derived brain cells is a suitable model to study the neurotoxicity of OP exposure and evaluate therapeutic compounds for treatment.
Three-dimensional brain-on-chip model using human iPSC-derived GABAergic neurons and astrocytes
Butyrylcholinesterase post-treatment for acute malathion exposure
Liu, L., Koo, Y., Russell, T., Gay, E., Li, Y., & Yun, Y. (2020). Three-dimensional brain-on-chip model using human iPSC-derived GABAergic neurons and astrocytes: Butyrylcholinesterase post-treatment for acute malathion exposure. PLoS One, 15(3), e0230335. . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0230335