Structure-activity relationship of trihexyphenidyl analogs with respect to the dopamine transporter in the on going search for a cocaine inhibitor
Dar, D. E., Thiruvazhi, M., Abraham, P., Kitayama, S., Kopajtic, T. A., Gamliel, A., ... Uhl, G. R. (2005). Structure-activity relationship of trihexyphenidyl analogs with respect to the dopamine transporter in the on going search for a cocaine inhibitor. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 40(10), 1013-1021.
A series of trihexyphenidyl (THP) analogs were used to search for a derivative that could serve as a cocaine inhibitor. A compound that blocks binding of the cocaine analog carboxyfluorotropane (CFT), allows dopamine uptake and exhibits low side effects could serve as a good candidate for that purpose. All analogs were tested for the extent to which they inhibit CFT binding, dopamine uptake and n-methyl scopolamine (NMS) binding. Several structure-function relationships emerged. Methylation/halogenation of THP's benzene ring enhanced the compound's ability to block CFT binding in comparison to its ability to block dopamine uptake (5a-e). Replacement of the cyclohexyl ring with a benzene ring tended to create compounds that had lower affinities to the dopamine transporter (7b compared to THP, 7d compared to 5h, 7c compared to 8c) and modification of THP's piperidine ring tended to enhance affinity to the dopamine transporter (5f-h, 8a, 8c). One analog (5f) that showed little muscarinic activity indicating that it would probably have few side effects was investigated for its effects as an in vivo cocaine inhibitor. However, it showed few antagonistic effects in vivo. Nevertheless, this work greatly elucidates the structure-function relationships required for potential cocaine inhibitors and so lays out promising directions for future research. (c) 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved