State of the science review: Potential for beneficial use of waste by-products for in situ remediation of metal-contaminated soil and sediment
Metal and metalloid contamination of soil and sediment is a widespread problem both in urban and rural areas throughout the United States (U.S. EPA, 2014). Beneficial use of waste by-products as amendments to remediate metal-contaminated soils and sediments can provide major economic and environmental advantages on both a site-specific and national scale. These waste by-products can also reduce our need to mine virgin materials or produce synthetic materials for amendments. However, waste by-products must not be hazardous, pose unacceptable risk to human health and environment, and should be a suitable replacement for virgin and synthetic materials. This review serves to present the state of science on in-situ remediation of metal-contaminated soil and sediment and potential for beneficial usage of waste by-product materials. Not all unintended consequences can be fully understood or predicted prior to implementing a treatment option, however some realized, and potentially unrealized benefits and unintended consequences are explored.