Risk factors for postcoital bleeding among women with or at risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus
Risk factors for postcoital bleeding were examined in 475 women who were enrolled in a study of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In bivariate analyses, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; P = .03), HIV infection (P = .008), and dyspareunia or pain during intercourse (P = .0001) were significant risk factors. In multivariate analysis, the two latter factors remained significant (for HIV, odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, P = .02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-4.0; for dyspareunia, OR = 3.5, P < .001, 95% CI = 1.8-6.6), as did the interaction term of STD history and heavy smoking (OR = 2.4, P = .02, 95% CI = 1.2-5.0). Pain during intercourse was the strongest predictor of postcoital bleeding but may be part of the same phenomenon. Similarly, because this study relied on cross-sectional data, the direction of the causal pathway linking HIV to postcoital bleeding cannot be established. However, these data suggest that smoking, a modifiable risk factor, may increase risk of postcoital bleeding and contribute to susceptibility for HIV and other STDs
Padian, N., Abrams, J., Skurnick, J. H., Van Devanter, N. L., & O'Brien, T. R. (1995). Risk factors for postcoital bleeding among women with or at risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 172(4), 1084-1087.