Relationship Between Parental Involvement and Adolescent Substance Use: Gender Differences and Links to Participation in School-Based Activities
Ashley, O. S., Blitstein, J. L., Penne, M. A., Bauman, K. E., & Gfroerer, J. (2005, December). Relationship Between Parental Involvement and Adolescent Substance Use: Gender Differences and Links to Participation in School-Based Activities. Presented at American Public Health Association Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.
Parental involvement is an important factor in decreasing the risk of adolescent substance use that may show effects through its influence on school behavior. In particular, adolescents engaged in school-based activities spend less unsupervised time after school and are more likely to meet pro-social peers. Furthermore, little is known about whether demographic characteristics or parent substance use moderate these protective effects on adolescent substance use. This study examined relationships between parental involvement, demographic characteristics, parent substance use, and adolescent substance use. Data are from nationally representative samples of mothers (n=2,302) and fathers (n=1,563) interviewed along with their adolescents aged 12 to 17 in the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Cumulative logits were used to examine influences on the lifetime number (0 to 8) of types of substances adolescents used, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. Results among father-child pairs indicated that higher levels of parental involvement were associated with increased protection among adolescents from using more substances (OR=2.30; 95%CI = 1.52, 2.71), regardless of demographic characteristics or father binge/heavy alcohol or illicit drug use. Among mother-child pairs, the association between parental involvement and adolescent substance use was moderated by gender, such that boys (OR=1.56; 95%CI = 1.23, 1.97) were less protected than girls (OR=2.98; 95% CI = 2.26, 3.93). Participation in school-based activities mediated the relationship between parental involvement and adolescent substance use only among mother-daughter pairs (z=2.60, p=0.005). Findings suggest that parenting interventions may be especially effective in preventing substance use among adolescent females.