Psychological distress in childhood trauma survivors who abuse drugs
Medrano, M. A., Hatch, J. P., Zule, W., & Desmond, D. P. (2002). Psychological distress in childhood trauma survivors who abuse drugs. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 28(1), 1-13.
The relationships between the level of childhood maltreatment and current psychological distress were examined in a community sample of 676 substance abusing men and women using a validated self-report instrument (the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) designed to measure physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and physical and emotional neglect. Current levels of self-reported psychological distress/symptoms were measured using a 53-item Brief Symptom Inventory. Prevalence of early trauma ranged from 44% for emotional neglect to 65% for sexual abuse. The severity of all forms of childhood maltreatment were directly associated with current psychological distress.