A pre-intervention survey to determine understanding of HIV and AIDS in farm worker communities in Zimbabwe
Laver, S. M., van den, B. B., Kok, G., & Woelk, G. (1997). A pre-intervention survey to determine understanding of HIV and AIDS in farm worker communities in Zimbabwe. AIDS Education and Prevention, 9(1), 94-110.
A cumulative total of 41,298 AIDS cases have been reported in Zimbabwe as of March 1995. Of concern is the growing evidence of high levels of seroprevalence among rural farm workers. A pre-intervention survey was conducted by interview in one district to examine behavioral factors likely to place farm workers in marginalized rural communities at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and HIV infection. Seven hundred seventy commercial farm workers from 17 randomly selected commercial farm participated in the study. We found that farm worker communities, which are characterized by educationally disadvantaged women when compared with men (p < .001), have had little exposure to AIDS prevention activities. Beliefs that AIDS is brought about by divine or ancestral retribution were upheld by less education women (p < .001). A significant association was found with respect to perceived risk to HIV and low self-efficacy among uneducated women who articulated helplessness and an inability to protect themselves from HIV infection. Among more educated men, we found acknowledgment about multipartnering and that changes in behavior are more likely to develop as a result of changes in normative values (p = .075). Condom use among men, which is probably the most effective barrier against STD infection, was shown to be associated with age (p < .01) and education (p < .01). The study concludes with recommendations for an appropriate intervention