Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (PTEAM) study: Distributions of aerosol and elemental concentrations in personal, indoor, and outdoor air samples in a southern California community
Particle concentrations were measured for a probability-based sample of 178 nonsmoking individuals aged 10 or older residing in Riverside, California, in the fall of 1990. Two 12-hr personal-exposure PM10 samples were obtained for each participant, along with fixed-location PM10 and PM2.5 indoor and outdoor air samples at their residences. The particle samples were also analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to determine elemental concentrations for selected elements, including some toxic metals, crustal elements, and combustion- and industrial-source related elements. About 25% of the target population was estimated to have 24-hr personal exposures to PM10 that exceeded the national ambient air concentration standard of 150 micrograms/m3. The daytime personal exposure levels (median of 130 micrograms/m3) tended to exceed both indoor and outdoor levels by about 50%; nighttime personal exposure levels were lower and were only slightly higher than nighttime indoor levels. Several possible reasons for the elevated daytime personal PM10 levels (relative to indoor levels) are considered. Certain activities such as house cleaning and smoking were found to be associated with elevated personal exposure levels
Clayton, C., Perritt, R., Pellizzari, E., Thomas, K., Whitmore, R., Wallace, LA., ... Spengler, JD. (1993). Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (PTEAM) study: Distributions of aerosol and elemental concentrations in personal, indoor, and outdoor air samples in a southern California community. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 3(2), 227-250.