Molecular identification of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles (formerly Anopheles gambiae Savannah Form) in Kamuli District, Uganda
Kabbale, F. G., Akol, A. M., Kaddu, J. B., Matovu, E., Kazibwe, A., Yadouleton, A., & Onapa, A. (2016). Molecular identification of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles (formerly Anopheles gambiae Savannah Form) in Kamuli District, Uganda. African Journal of Biotechnology, 15(39), 1-8. DOI: 10.5897/AJB2016.15444
Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles (formerly A. gambiae S molecular form), the largelyanthropophilic species, is reportedly the most important malaria vector in Uganda among the A.gambiae complex species. Indoor and outdoor human-biting mosquitoes were caught for fourconsecutive nights in each of 48 households in Kamuli district using human-baited bed net traps forsubsequent identification of the principal Anopheles sibling species responsible for transmittingmalaria. Sibling species under the A. gambiae complex were characterized by polymerase chainreaction using species specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the intergenic spacer region(IGS) with primers specific for A. gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles melas, Anophelesmerus and Anopheles quadriannulatus. Molecular forms of the A. gambiae s.s. were furtherdiscriminated using primers specific for Mopti and Savannah forms. Out of 300 A. gambiae s.l.amplified, 98% (n= 294) were A. gambiae s.s. Out of 142 A. gambiae s.s. samples analyzed for molecularforms, 78.9% (n=112) were identified as A. gambiae s.s. Giles (A. gambiae Savannah (S) form, while theother 21.1% were not identifiable. the presence of A. gambiae s.s. Giles in Kamuli was also reported.Considering the anthropophilic, endophagic and endophilic behavior of A. gambiae s.s. (and of themolecularly similar A. gambiae s.s. Giles), the combined use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoorresidual spraying, larval source management and improved house design in the context of integratedvector management, may be the appropriate vector control strategies in the area. There is also need forregular monitoring of the vector species composition, distribution and behavior for proper planning ofappropriate vector control interventions in the future.