Mode effect analysis – Paper respondents vs. web respondents in the 2004–05 Teacher Follow-up Survey
As the use of web-based surveys grows primarily due to lower costs, concerns of selection bias are increasing, as some people are still not computer or internet literate. The Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS), a widely used survey of teachers, has undergone similar changes moving from paper to an internet survey. Sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the TFS is a component of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) designed to determine attrition and mobility rates of U.S. teachers. Designed as a one-year follow-up, the TFS has been administered after each SASS administration since school year 1988–89. Until the 2004–05 TFS, the survey was administered only through paper instruments. Because the 2004–05 TFS was collected by both web and paper instruments and the 2008–09 was primarily collected by web instrument, the authors investigated the possibility that trends could be compromised due to a change in collection mode.