A longitudinal analysis of the overlap between violence and victimization among adults with mental illnesses
Prior research suggests considerable overlap of violence perpetration and victimization among adults with mental illnesses. However, there has been no examination of how the likelihood of being a victim and/or perpetrator of violence may change over time, nor consideration of clinically-relevant factors affecting these transitions. In a pooled sample of adults with mental illnesses (N=3,473) we employed latent transition analysis to: (a) determine prevalence of four violence and victimization classifications (i.e., non-victim/non-perpetrator, victim only, perpetrator only, and victim-perpetrator) over a 6-month period; (b) calculate the likelihood that adults with mental illnesses will remain in or transition between these classifications over time; and (c) assess the effects of recent substance use, psychiatric symptoms, and suicidal behaviors on transitions over time. At each time point, the majority of participants identified as non-victim/non-perpetrators, followed by victim-perpetrators, victims only, and perpetrators only. Analyses also revealed many individuals transitioned between classifications over time. These distinct pathways towards, and away from, violent outcomes were, in part, a function of recent violence and/or victimization, as well as substance use, psychiatric symptoms, and suicidal behaviors. Findings inform the identification of adults with mental illnesses at risk of violence and victimization and highlight points of intervention.