Two experiments demonstrated that different procedures can be used to reduce the tendency for intergroup relations to be more competitive than interindividual relations. Experiment 1 revealed that this tendency was reduced when individual or group participants interacted with individual or group confederates who followed a tit-for-tat strategy as opposed to a Pavlov strategy or a standard control condition that did not involve confederates. Experiment 2 revealed that the tendency for groups to be more competitive than individuals was less pronounced with successive responding than with simultaneous responding. Further results indicated that the higher the total session score on the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale, the less the competition between groups. The results from both experiments were interpreted as indicating that intergroup competitiveness can be reduced by inducing a concern with long-term outcomes
Long-term outcome maximization and the reduction of interindividual-intergroup discontinuity
Insko, CA., Schopler, J., Pemberton, MB., Wieselquist, J., McIlraith, SA., Currey, DP., & Gaertner, L. (1998). Long-term outcome maximization and the reduction of interindividual-intergroup discontinuity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(3), 695-710.