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Isoxyl Aerosols for Tuberculosis Treatment: Preparation and Characterization of Particles

Isoxyl is a potent antituberculosis drug effective in treating various multidrug-resistant strains in the absence of known side effects. Isoxyl has been used exclusively, but infrequently, via the oral route and has exhibited very poor and highly variable bioavailability due to its sparing solubility in water. These properties resulted in failure of some clinical trials and, consequently, isoxyl's use has been limited. Delivery of isoxyl to the lungs, a major site of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, is an attractive alternative route of administration that may rescue this abandoned drug for a disease that urgently requires new therapies. Particles for pulmonary delivery were prepared by antisolvent precipitation. Nanofibers with a width of 200 nm were obtained by injecting isoxyl solution in ethanol to water at a volume ratio of solvent to antisolvent of 1:5. Based on this preliminary result, a well-controlled method, involving nozzle mixing, was employed to prepare isoxyl particles. All the particles were 200 to 400 nm in width but had different lengths depending on properties of the solvents. However, generating these nanoparticles by simultaneous spray drying produced isoxyl microparticles (Feret's diameter, 1.19-1.77 mu m) with no discernible nanoparticle substructure. The bulking agent, mannitol, helped to prevent these nanoparticles from agglomeration during process and resulted in nanoparticle aggregates in micron-sized superstructures. Future studies will focus on understanding difference of these isoxyl microparticles and nanoparticles/nanoparticle aggregates in terms of in vivo disposition and efficacy


Wang, CC., & Hickey, A. (2010). Isoxyl Aerosols for Tuberculosis Treatment: Preparation and Characterization of Particles. AAPS PharmSciTech, 11(2), 538-549. https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-010-9415-y

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