Influence of intercodon and base frequencies on codon usage in filarial parasites
Base frequency, codon usage, and intercodon identity were analyzed in five filarial parasite species representing five Onchocercidae genera. Wucheria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, Acanthocheilonema viteae, and Dirofilaria immitis gene sequences were downloaded from NCBI, and analysis was performed using locally designed computer programs and other freely available applications. A clear sequence bias was observed among the nematode species examined. At the nucleotide level, AT basepairs were present in gene sequences at higher frequencies than GC. In addition, codons ending in A or T were used proportionately more than those with G or C in the third-codon position. In addition, the amino acids used most often corresponded to codons ending in AT basepairs. Intercodon base proportion was biased in that A was found most often at N4, second only to T in certain specific cases. Since all of these sequence biases were observed in a relatively consistent fashion among all of the organisms studied, we conclude that sequence bias is a genetic characteristic, which is associated with multiple filarial genera. (C) 2001 Academic Press
Fadiel, A., Lithwick, S., Wanas, M. Q., & Cuticchia, A. (2001). Influence of intercodon and base frequencies on codon usage in filarial parasites. Genomics, 74(2), 197-210.