• Journal Article

The influence of human and environmental exposure factors on personal NO2 exposures


Williams, R., Jones, P., Croghan, C., Thornburg, J., & Rodes, C. (2012). The influence of human and environmental exposure factors on personal NO2 exposures. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 22(2), 109-115. DOI: 10.1038/jes.2011.20


The US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) deployed a total of over 2000 nitrogen dioxide, NO2, passive monitors during 3 years of field data collections. These 24-h based personal, residential outdoor and community-based measurements allowed for the investigation of NO2 spatial, temporal, human and environmental factors. The relationships between personal exposures to NO2 and the factors that influence the relationship with community-based measurements were of interest. Survey data from 136 participants were integrated with exposure findings to allow for mixed model effect analyses. Ultimately, 50 individual factors were selected for examination. NO2 analyses revealed that season, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and residential gas appliances were strong influencing factors. Only modest associations between community-based measures of nitrogen dioxide and personal exposures impacted by various exposure factors for heating (r = 0.44) or non-heating seasons (r = 0.34) were observed, indicating that use of ambient-based monitoring as a surrogate of personal exposure might result in sizeable exposure misclassification. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2012) 22, 109-115; doi:10.1038/jes.2011.20; published online 4 May 2011