Indoor residual spraying with micro-encapsulated pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) against malaria vectors in the Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania
BACKGROUND: The indoor residual spraying programme for malaria vectors control was implemented in four districts of the Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania namely Ukerewe, Sengerema, Rorya andSerengeti. Entomological monitoring activities were implemented in one sentinel village in each district to evaluate the efficacy of pirimiphos-methyl 300 CS sprayed on different wall surfaces and its impact against malaria vectors post-IRS intervention.
METHODS: The residual decay rate of p-methyl 300 CS applied at a target dosage of 1g a.i./m2 on thesprayed wall surfaces was monitored for a period of 43 weeks post-IRSusing the WHO cone wall bioassay method. The bioassays were performed by exposing 2-5 days old unfed susceptible female Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Kisumu strain) to sprayed wall surfaces for a period of 30 minutes. In each sentinel village, mosquito collection was carried out by trained community mosquito collectors. Monthly mosquito collections were carried out from 6.00pm to 6.00am using CDC light traps and clay pot methods for indoors host seekingand outdoors resting mosquitoes respectively. Six traps (2 CDC light traps and 4 clay pots) were set per sentinel village per night for28 consecutive days in a moon. PCR and ELISA were used for mosquito species identification and sporozoite detection, respectively.
RESULTS: Based on the WHOPES recommendation, insecticides should have a minimum efficacy of ≥ 80% mosquito mortality at 24 hours post exposure on the sprayed wall surfaces to be considered effective. In this study, p-methyl 300 CS was demonstrated to have a long residual efficacy of 21-43 weeks post-IRS on mud, cement, painted and wood wall surfaces. Numberof anopheline mosquitoes decreased post-IRS interventions in all sentinel villages. The highest numbers ofanopheline mosquitoes were collected in November-December, 38-43 weeks post-IRS. A total of 270 female anopheline mosquitoes were analyzed by PCR; out of which 236 (87.4%) were An. gambiae s.l. and 34 (12.6%) were An. funestus group. Of the 236 An. gambiae s.l.identified 12.6% (n = 34) were An. gambiae s.s. and 68.6% (n = 162) were An. arabiensis. Ofthe 34 An. funestus group indentified 91.2% (n = 31) were An. parensis and 8.8% (n = 3) were An. rivulorum. The overall Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rate was 0.7% (n = 2,098).
CONCLUSIONS: Pirimiphos-methyl 300 CS was found to be effective for IRS in the Lake Victoria basin,Tanzania. P-methyl 300 CShas a long residual efficacy on sprayed wall surfaces and therefore it is effective in controlling principal malaria vectors of An. gambiae s.l and An. funestus which rest on wall surfaces after and before feeding.